All Saints Church at Harewood, West Yorkshire

all-saints-harewood-banner-1-smallAll Saints Church at Harewood, West Yorkshire was a small family church in the grounds of Harewood House in West Yorkshire and is now only occasionally used and is looked after by The Churches Conservation Trust. In many ways it is typical of many English churches in having an Anglo-Saxon antecedent, a priest was resident on this site as early as the 10th Century and a fragment of Viking carving and the Norman font still survive but the first record of foundation was by William Cuci in 1116. The gift of the living was given by his wife to the Canons of Saint Sepulchre of York Minster. It is said that the church was destroyed by the Scots in 1307 (the year of Edward I’s death in Cumberland)  but more likely the destruction was in In the years from 1314, when Robert the Bruce took a Scots army through northern England against Edward II, plundering and demanding cash for local truces. The church was rebuilt in 1330 and was rebuilt again upon the same ground plan in 1410 by Elizabeth and Sibyl de Aldeburgh of Harewood castle. It underwent several alterations in the 1780’s including the steeple, the addition of ’Gothick’ battlements and a clock tower. Further alterations were made from 1862 by Sir George Gilbert Scott. However it’s most remarkable feature is possibly England’s best collection of late medieval alabaster table tombs most of which date from between 1419-1510. This was the high point of the art of English alabaster carving and there are six fine examples here together at All Souls in Harewood which are the tombs of:

Sir William Gascoigne (d.1419) and his wife Elizabeth Mowbray of Kirklington

Sir William Ryther (d.1426) and his wife Sybil Aldburgh (d.1440) of Harewood Castle

Sir Richard Redman (d.1426) and his wife Elizabeth Aldburgh (d.1434) of Harewood Castle

Sir William Gascoigne (d.1465) and his wife Margaret Clarell of Aldwark

Sir William Gascoigne (d.1487) and his wife Margaret Percy, daughter of 3rd Earl of Northumberland

Edward Redman (d.1510) and his wife Elizabeth Huddlestone (d.1529) of Millom, Cumberland

all-saints-harewood-banner-3What is remarkable about this astonishing collection of fifteenth century tombs is the vivacity of the carving, the detail of dress and artefacts and of course their survival. All carved in Chellaston alabaster, despite the predations of generations of subsequent casual defacement including some noteworthy graffito, these effigies and their accompanying architectural ornaments present a remarkably lifelike and engaging party of distinct personalities allowing one to speculate on the mores and preoccupations of the occupants, or at least the way the artists would have them. To find them in what has become a lesser known country church is a delight. Before the wider use of painted portraiture, an effigy on a tomb would have been one of the few occasions on which minor or middle ranking aristocracy would have had any semblance of their personal appearance preserved. This kind of art in architecture appears to be lost in the contemporary, modern world just as the way memorialisation, even of the famous, rarely matches these kind of sculptural and artistic heights. The fact that over 500 years ago such art was practiced on a wide basis and that unlike many other churches it has survived here at Harewood and forms part of the architecture of this delightful church should be a salutary reminder of the real value of art in architecture, its potential for longevity and the delight and reflective thought it can bring to subsequent generations over hundreds of years. all-saints-harewood-banner-2-small

Posted in Churches and Ecclesiatical, Medieval, Richard III & Medieval Leicester, Tudor | Leave a comment

New Offices for the Digital Building Heritage Group

IMG_8280 smallHappy to say we’ve finally moved into our brand new offices at De Montfort University’s new VJ Patel Building. We’ve even got a great shared kitchen, storage, ceiling projection and truly outstanding views from our 180 degree wrap around glazed wall that looks down over the campus. This new £56M building in which our offices and tech facilities are now located houses the art and design subjects at De Montfort University. The Digital Building Heritage Group has its office in the POD, the research wing of the new building. The POD concentrates a range of research groups together to maximise the opportunity for cross-disciplinary working and is attached by a 5 storey atrium with “Harry Potter” staircase (see pics) to the main undergraduate and post-graduate teaching spaces. The atrium has casual seating areas, with electrical plug sockets and café style seating and computer screens that provide convenient points for incidental meetings and conversations. It’s also a place that will be used for exhibitions and events, to see and be seen. At the top floor is a large casual seating area and an outdoor sun-terrace that looks west over the city and the river Soar. On the ground floor are the workshops and labs with glass internal walls onto the circulation corridor and reception so that visitors can see the great work that’s going on inside and of course there are large open plan teaching studios for all the creative disciplines in the faculty. Banner 1 small


External works are still going on not least of which the demolition of some low-rise buildings to create a large, grassed parkland space directly in front of the building and on the other side of which is the university library and the award-winning environmentally designed Queens Building. This grassy sward will go all the way down to the river, paralleling our new building and there will be a canalised river-bank where at some stage where there will be boats or punts to go on the river. We are glad to be once again at the heart of the DMU campus and sharing this building with such a wealth of research talent. Important matters such as the weekly tea cakes have already been established and are guaranteed to get the neighbouring research groups round for a lively chat. Old friends and new are welcome to come and visit, phone , e-mail and web addresses remain the same. The postal and satnav address is now:

Digital Building Heritage Group, Room VPPD2.13, The Gateway, Leicester, UK, LE1 9BH

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What is really great is that the new building is right next to the historic heart of DMU’s campus and a wealth of history and architecture which is one of the things that makes De Montfort such a good place to study digital building heritage. The combination of the old and the new is an asset with modern facilities and state-of-the art accommodation situated beside examples of great historic architecture that we can see and use every day.

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Touch Screens, Bling and the Word at Lichfield Cathedral

Turning the pages British Library Lichfield Banner #1It was a delight to return to Lichfield Cathedral recently as a visitor to re-appreciate the wonderful architecture, sculpture and atmosphere of this ancient English cathedral. Helpfully the Dean and Chapter have provided touch screens in the building to assist the visitor in understanding this great English Cathedral. This may seem anathema to some but the installations are so low-key and unobtrusive as to have no deleterious effect on the Cathedral’s sanctity or general ambience. In addition to this I was pleasantly surprised to find in the Chapter House a beautifully presented display of the St. Chad’s Gospels (c730AD), a treasure of the Cathedral, sometimes also known as the St Teilo Gospels. This magnificent volume comprises 236 surviving folios, eight of which are illuminated and another four that contain framed text. They are in a remarkably good state of preservation and it sends a shiver up the spine of any real bibliophile to be close such an ancient and beautiful example of the illuminator and scribes’ art, in this case one that is over 1200 years old, older than the Book of Kells. The gospels themselves had an accompanying touch screen display running the British Library’s ‘Turning the Pages™’ software which allows the visitor to “leaf through” the virtual pages of the St Chad’s Gospels and explore the text and images. The combination of the real artefact and digital representation together worked very well, the fidelity and resolution of the digital version being particularly good. When we were there the St Chad Gospels were open at St Matthews’ Gospel, Chapter 26 verses 27-42. In these pages Jesus predicts Peter’s denial and that the disciples will fall away on account of him. ‘But’ Jesus says, ‘after I have risen, I will go ahead of you into Galilee’ which can be seen at the bottom of the left hand page, in Latin: sed cum resurrxero praecedam vos ingalileam. The touch screen system is invaluable for non-Latin readers to make sense of the text, and lends much to the enjoyment of the exhibit. Staffordshire Hoard Banner Lichfield #1

The St Chad’s Gospels were accompanied in this small exhibition in the Chapter House by some magnificent pieces from the Staffordshire Hoard ( ) which was discovered in a farmer’s field near Hammerwich in 2009, only 4 miles away and is the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever found in England. The pieces on display are all ecclesiastical and of exquisite workmanship, such as this unusually large pectoral cross or pectorale (from the Latin pectoralis: ‘of the chest’) which would have been suspended from the neck by a cord or chain. It would have been worn by senior clergy (bishops and abbots) as a sign of their office, or by wealthy Christian lay people. Artefacts like this give a glimpse of the decorative splendour of early medieval Christianity in England and the wealth with which it was endowed. Herkenrode Glass Lichfield Banner #1

Another area in which the touch screens are very successful is in interpreting the unique Renaissance Herkenrode stained glass windows, viewed by some as one of Europe’s greatest artistic treasures. Rescued from destruction during the Napoleonic Wars they were installed in the Cathedral in 1803 and they have recently (starting in 2010) undergone a 5 year renovation at the Barley Studio ( ). The touch screens give an excellent sense of the luminosity and light characteristic of stained glass and allow the visitor to see the detail of the windows which otherwise would be far too distant and small, high up in the chancel to discern with any clarity. Again the interactivity of the touch screens allows a useful and silent interrogation of their history without disturbing other visitors or the quietude of this sacred space. In this Lichfield seems to have got the balance absolutely right, unobtrusive but reliable and nowadays simple technology deployed sparingly where it is needed and can be used to best effect. If any criticism could be made it is that the touch screens have clearly been heavily used and their casings here and there are showing signs of wear, but this can be easily refurbished and does not detract from the understanding or functionality of these digital assets. It is interesting to speculate what the next stage of unobtrusive and sensitive digital interpretation of cathedral spaces and artefacts in-situ could be as both technological capabilities and public expectations move on. Lichfield Moulding Banner #1

Posted in Anglo Saxon, Churches and Ecclesiatical, Display Screens, Medieval, Museum Installations | Leave a comment

3D Printed Model of 16th Century Bradgate House

Bradgate 4 croppedWe were recently pleased to deliver a large (1.25m 0.75m) 3D printed model of the late 17th century Bradgate House to the new Bradgate Park Visitor’s Centre, just outside Leicester, UK. This new exhibition which was designed by Creative Good Ltd for the Bradgate Park Trust , provides the visitor to this ancient deer park with a richly presented overview of the park’s geology and prehistory through later human occupation and management to the present day. Part of that history focusses on the Tudor house, that used to sit in the centre of this large estate and which was the home of Lady Jane Grey, England’s “Eight Day Queen.” We have been carrying out research on the history of this relatively under-studied building involving practical field work and laser scanning the remains of the building as well as archival research to piece together how its innovative use of technology and ambitious design was at the forefront of aristocratic English architecture, and how its architects and patrons imported renaissance ideas from the continent in the early 16th century. We have blogged previously about the laser scanning, archaeological investigations, digital reconstruction process and the dynastic rivalries at Bradgate House – click on the links.P1200501

The building evolved in number of phases, driven by the political ambitions of the Grey family, their rivalry with the other great Leicestershire landowning family the Hastings, and was also constrained by the fluctuations in their finances and favour at court. The model itself is large and was printed in a series of eighteen removable parts, to allow future changes should historical interpretation of the remains of the building change over time. With 3D printing this provides an economic form of lasting adaptability, as parts can be modified on the computer and 3D printed and inserted as required. The model is monochrome grey to colour coordinate with the rest of Creative Good Ltd.’s exhibition design and to focus the viewers’ attention on the physical form of the building which is not readily apparent when one goes out into the park and looks at the ruins themselves. Accompanying the model are photorealistic, full-colour 2D reconstructions of the exterior of the building as it would have looked around 1700 AD, showing in detail the brick diaper-work (diagonal patterning of bricks) which was a decorative feature of early English brickwork and also showing the building’s immediate landscape context. As well as exciting developments in immersive Virtual Reality, on-screen CGI and other forms of digital display of built heritage, there is still an important role for physical models in heritage exhibitions. The immediacy and permanence of a physical model as an informative artefact in itself appears to have a lasting appeal to audiences and museum curators. It may be that models produced using new techniques like 3D printing will in themselves become historical objects in their own right, not only as simplified and abstracted interpretations intended to more clearly convey an understanding of what is no longer present but also as exemplars of the use of new technologies – but that remains to be seen. In the meantime we expect the Bradgate Park Trust’s new 3D printed model of Bradgate House, produced using the latest historical and architectural research will help visitors better understand this building, the family that occupied it and their place in English architectural and social history. Bradgate Model small #2

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Dynastic Rivalry and Digital Reconstruction at Bradgate House

Aedicule (Small)For the past few weeks, members of the Digital Building Heritage Group have been working on content for a new Visitor’s Centre at Bradgate Park, Leicestershire which is being opened by the Bradgate Park Trust on the 1st July 2016. The group has been producing visuals and a 3D digital model of Bradgate house as it existed around the year 1700 when it was at the height of its development and owned by Thomas Grey, 2nd Earl of Stamford PC (c. 1654 – 1720). Once a large complex of residential and estate buildings, the house now lies as an extensive set of picturesque ruins at the centre of a large and ancient deer park and together the ruins and the park are maintained as a public amenity by the Trust. Bradgate House was an important and early brick-built Tudor minor palace, rather larger just a manor house, and was most famously the childhood home of Lady Jane Grey, the so-called “Eight Day Queen.” It was built by Thomas Grey (1477-1530) 2nd Marquis of Dorset as the centrepiece of an expansionist battle for power and prestige by the Grey family amongst the English nobility at the court of King Henry VIII. Bradgate House minus ground B

In particular it was intended in the early 15th century to rival the building projects of another Leicestershire land-owning family the Hastings, led by George Hastings (1488-1544) 1st Earl of Huntingdon. Both families undertook massive building programmes in a lethal, national dynastic rivalry to such an extent that they have been described as the Montagues and Capulets of Leicestershire. The Greys were based at Bradgate where they built Bradgate House and the Hastings were based in Ashby de La Zouch Castle which they substantially expanded but they also controlled the town of Leicester with their headquarters in the Newarke where De Montfort’s Trinity House now stands. At Bradgate new research is revealing how, in a race to impress and survive the Greys were adopting at a very early date the latest architectural ideas and technologies from the continent and were spending to the limit of their ability. Intriguingly it may be that the leading figures in shaping these building programmes were not Thomas Grey or George Hastings, but their wives Margaret Wotton, Marchioness of Dorset (1487–1541), Mistress of Bradgate House, wife of Thomas Grey and Anne Stafford (1483-1544), Countess of Huntingdon, wife of George Hastings, mistress of Ashby-de-la Zouch. These two formidable women would have controlled the day to-to-day management of their respective estates and like their husbands were familiar figures at the court of King Henry VIII. They were literate and well educated and they would have had a substantial influence on the design of their respective houses and access to the ideas about renaissance palace design circulating at court.

Left - Margaret Wotton (1487–1541), Marchioness of Dorset and matriarch of the Grey Family. Right - Anne Stafford (1483-1544), Countess of Huntingdon, and matriarch of the Hastings Family.

Left – Margaret Wotton (1487–1541), Marchioness of Dorset and matriarch of the Grey Family. Right – Anne Stafford (1483-1544), Countess of Huntingdon, and matriarch of the Hastings Family.

They were also bitter rivals and there are many fascinating stories arising from this dynastic conflict which spread across Leicestershire, England and beyond. The work that the Digital Building Heritage Group has been undertaking is helping to piece together not only the building of Bradgate House but also the historical and social context of the people who brought it into being, their motivations and ambitions, the means at their disposal and the problems they faced. This is allowing us to better interpret why Bradgate House was designed and built in the way it was, what influenced those who designed it and in turn what influence it may have had on later architecture. With the opening of the new Visitor’s Centre at Bradgate Park, we hope that members of the public will gain a better insight into how the picturesque ruins they see today were once an imposing complex of state-of-the-art, early English Renaissance buildings closely connected to political and court life in Tudor England.Bradgate House Overview Logo (Small)

Posted in 3D Digital Modelling, Jacobean Architecture, Museum Installations, Textures and Rendering, Tudor | Leave a comment

De Montfort University Architecture Students Design for Historic Malta

Glass Shop 1 smallIt’s that time of year again and our group of MArch Architecture students working with the Digital Building Heritage Group have completed their designs for their adaptive re-use projects in Malta which they visited for a week in January 2016. Ranging from a glass workshop and high-end sales boutique to a winery and new medical library and archive, this year’s crop of projects have allowed DMU’s architecture students to explore how new, modern architecture can be sensitively and carefully adapted to fit into historic settings, in this case the UNESCO world heritage site of the Three Cities and Valletta. All the students spent a week exploring these magnificent cities and focussing on single buildings or structures that required adaptations to give them new life and a better chance of being preserved. Careful thought was given to the current economic and social context in which Malta finds itself and the opportunities as well as challenges this is bringing. Difficult questions were asked about the degree of adaptation, what should be preserved and what, if anything might be sacrificed. Conservation techniques were examined, particularly in relation to the marvellous limestone from which virtually all the historic buildings in the area are made and the issues of weathering and chemical erosion which affect them. Being speculative projects a degree of imagination was exercised in proposing new uses for historic buildings and interestingly, although they had the option to do so, none of the students designed a museum, all of the projects had a commercial or other operational function. This was not deliberate but it goes to show that historic cities of international importance do not have to be pickled in aspic as purely heritage tourist destinations, they can be living, economically successful communities. These were some of the ambitions for the student’s projects and irrespective of the degree to which individual students met them they have all gained a deep appreciation of the value of material and cultural heritage, historic architecture and the role that sensitive design for heritage sites can play in shaping better urban futures. We hope that our students continue to develop these interests and we look forward to more De Montfort University architecture students next year entering this programme to work on new architectural heritage projects with us. Lalan 2Boat Building Ac SmallMed Library 1 banner3D Printed Models Banner

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Leicester’s Newarke – Through the Ages

The Medieval Newarke Precinct in 1485, St Mary De Castro and the Leicester Castle Great Hall are on the Left, the Motte Mound of Leicester Castle in the middle and the now lost Collegiate Church of St Mary of Annunciation in the Newarke is on the right. The River Soar is in the foreground.

Digital reconstruction the Medieval Newarke precinct in 1485. The church of St Mary De Castro and the Leicester Castle Great Hall are on the Left, the motte mound of Leicester Castle are in the middle and the now lost Collegiate Church of St Mary of the Annunciation in the Newarke is on the right. The River Soar is in the foreground.

The Newarke precinct in Leicester is where De Montfort University has its campus. Its history goes back to the Roman period where there is evidence of farm and other buildings, culverts, agriculture, burials and roads, in a low density settlement outside the south gate of Leicester when it was the Roman city of Ratae Corieltauvorum.

The area outside the Roman city walls of Leicester (Ratae Corieltauvorum) which in the 14th century was to become The Newarke.

Digital Reconstruction of the area outside the Roman city walls of Leicester (Ratae Corieltauvorum) which in the 14th century was to become The Newarke.

The liberty of the Newarke as this area became known was a small rectangular district lying on the east bank of the Soar, to the south of the old walled area of the borough. In 1330 Henry, Earl of Lancaster founded a hospital on this site immediately to the south of the castle just outside the borough walls. This was substantially enlarged by his son, Henry, Duke of Lancaster who increased the size of the hospital and added to it a large and richly endowed chantry college to form the hospital and College of the Annunciation of St Mary in the Newarke. The dean and canons of the college claimed exemption from the borough jurisdiction, and in 1360 the king confirmed that the college and its precincts were so exempt and formed a small liberty. The college was known as St. Mary’s of the New Work, or Newarke, to distinguish it from the older college of St. Mary de Castro inside the borough, next to the castle’s great hall (see above). We have blogged about the history of the hospital and St Mary of the Annunciation here and other visualisation projects related to this chapel, including 3D printing here

Reconstructed interior of the Church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Royal Chantry Chapel of the Dukes of Lancaster in the The Chantry College of the Annunciation of St Mary in the Newarke, Leicester, founded 1353.

Digitally reconstructed interior of the Church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which was the royal chantry chapel of the Dukes of Lancaster in the the Chantry College of the Annunciation of St Mary in the Newarke, Leicester, founded in 1353.

Overview of the Medieval Newarke in Leicester in 1485. It was surrounded by a perimeter wall in which there were five gate-houses, there were hoses for the canons, vicars and the dean of the college and to the north was the castle and St Mary de Castro.

Digital reconstruction overview of the Medieval Newarke in Leicester in 1485. It was surrounded by a perimeter wall in which there were five gate-houses, there were houses for the canons, vicars and the dean of the college as well as other collegiate buildings and to the north was the castle precinct and St Mary de Castro, the castle’s church.

This college survived until the Edwardine dissolution of the Chantry Colleges when in 1548 its site and buildings were granted to John Beaumont, of Grace Dieu, and William Gies who sold off the cannons houses and other buildings and demolished the college and collegiate chapel for the value of the materials. Subsequently the properties became divided amongst various owners, the area was involved the siege of Leicester during the English Civil War with the Newarke gatehouse being used as a magazine for storing arms for the trained bands. From the 17th century until well into the 19th, the Newarke was the residence of some of Leicester’s wealthiest inhabitants. By the middle of the 19th century the County had made a number of purchases of land within the Newarke and to provide buildings for the militia, and later for the volunteer and Territorial forces of Leicestershire.

The Newarke in 1905, was, like most of Leicester a mixed residential and industrial area. Hosiery and boot factories were served by workers housed in rows of back-to-back houses on long streets.

A digital reconstruction overview of Leicester’s Newarke in 1905. It was, like most of Leicester a mixed residential and industrial area. Hosiery and boot factories were served by workers housed in rows of back-to-back houses on long streets.

It was in the late 19th century, after having rented several of the buildings in the Newarke for teaching such as the “old House” and the “Women’s Asylum” that the Leicester Municipal Technical and Art School built the Hawthorne building on the old College site to house its growing number of students.

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The Hawthorn building in Leicester as it would have appeared in 1905. Built in 1897 on the site of the old Collegiate Church of St Mary of the Annunciation this building housed a range of courses such art, design and architecture which are still taught by De Montfort University today.

The Digital Building heritage Group was commissioned to produce a series of reconstructions of this part of Leicester at three periods of its history, Roman, Medieval and Edwardian and combine them together in an animated fly-through sequence for explaining the historical development of De Montfort University’s campus which now occupies the Newarke precinct. This has been a challenging project, with many different buildings involved in each of the periods. It involved making three separate urban models each with their own buildings and slightly varying topography coving an area of about half a square mile. It was felt important to look at some buildings in more detail than others, a process of selection which proved difficult in some cases where there was equally good evidence for form, structure and materiality of the buildings but insufficient time to treat all of the buildings having this level of evidence to the same level of rendered detail. In the end executive decisions were made based on the narrative arc that was intended. Other buildings posed less of a dilemma where they were less well documented but rather than doing what we usually do of indicating these as white un-textured block models Steffan, who did most of the 3D on the project with some assistance from Jonathan and Romylos did give them indicative textures to maintain the overall visual “feel” of the recreation which is what was required for the intended audience. This was an aesthetic decision which non-the-less has scholarly implications and has prompted considerable discussion within the DBHG about audience expectations, aesthetics and authenticity. These are subjects which we have long been involved with and we’re pretty sure these debates will continue for the foreseeable future beyond this particular project. The resulting video fly-through which is just over 8 minutes duration will be on show at De Montfort University’s Heritage Centre in the Hawthorn Building.

Posted in 3D Digital Modelling, Churches and Ecclesiatical, City Models, Medieval, Museum Installations, Museum Installations, Richard III & Medieval Leicester, Roman, Tudor | Leave a comment

3D Printing the Star Carr Pendant

Left – the unmodified STL file of the Star Carr pendant. Right - A UHD 3D print of the pendant at 1:1 scale made using a 3D Systems Projet 3500 HD Max 3D printer at De Montfort University, Leicester.

Left – The unmodified STL file of the Star Carr pendant. Right – A UHD 3D print of the pendant at 1:1 scale made using a 3D Systems Projet 3500 HD Max 3D printer at De Montfort University, Leicester.

In 2015 an engraved shale pendant which is roughly triangular and measures approximately 31mm by 35mm by 3mm thick was found during archaeological excavations at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr, in North Yorkshire UK. On one of its faces it has a series of incised linear marks which the team involved in its discovery claim are the earliest known Mesolithic art in Britain. In March 2016 the independent, on-line, not-for-profit internet journal Internet Archaeology published a scholarly paper on the Star Carr pendant ( ). Helpfully, in their article Internet Archaeology included a downloadable STL (Surface Tessellation Language) file of the artefact. This is a very welcome initiative and Internet Archaeology are to be congratulated on taking this step which, if applied more widely, may have the potential to benefit a range of disciplines beyond archaeology.

STL files contain 3 dimensional coordinate data in the form of a geometric mesh of the surface of a 3 dimensional object  and can sometimes have other properties attached like colours. It is an industry standard method of transferring 3D shape data in a wide range of disciplines, notably in engineering, product design and architecture. The mesh data can be created in a number of ways from laser scanning and photogrammetry to 3D solid modelling. One of the uses of STL files is to produce 3D physical prints of the objects. This is something that we do quite a lot of in the Digital Building Heritage Group at De Montfort University and because we feel that Internet Archaeology’s initiative moves the debate about the use of 3D digital data of archaeological artefacts on in a useful and interesting way, we thought it might be helpful to look not at the artefact but at the 3D print arising from it and examine aspects of its production and potential use.

Reproductions of archaeological artefacts can have a number of very different uses. These may range from surface geometry analysis, wear pattern and impact detection to artefacts handling for school children and students, substitute display, travelling exhibitions and experimental archaeology. However it’s important to be clear about the pros and cons of 3D prints in relation to reproductions made by skilled artisans out of authentic materials. Good, hand-made reproductions are excellent for giving an authentic haptic experience of the appearance, texture, weight and “feel” of an artefact type, and of course they are often useable, having the same mechanical properties as the original would have had. Hand-made reproductions are in fact new artefacts, they can have most of the material properties of the original and can give excellent service as convincing simulacra for many purposes. But there are aspects of hand crafted copies which are less effective. One of these is that it’s virtually impossible using hand crafting to give crafted copies precise verisimilitude with the original at a very small-scale, for instance in scratches, incisions, indents, wear marks, ablations, corrosion pits and so on – aspects which can be of importance to archaeological enquiry. 3D data capture can (in theory) record these tiny details on the original with considerable precision, as well as the overall form of the object. The STL file of the Star Carr pendant is an example of this and a closer inspection of it can yield some useful insights into the advantages and limitations of this technique.

Sectional view through the STL file of the Star Carr pendant showing the good surface detail and the internal structural anomalies arising from the method of data capture and digital object production. Ideally these internal anomalies should be removed but in this case they were not critical and the part printed without modification.

Sectional view through the STL file of the Star Carr pendant showing the good surface detail and the internal structural anomalies arising from the method of data capture and digital object production. Ideally these internal anomalies should be removed but in this case they were not critical and the part printed without modification.

On downloading the STL file of the Star Carr pendant from ( ) the first step was to evaluate its integrity. 3D prints work best with “clean” STL files, that have no errors, consistent orientation of normals, no overlapping edges between triangles, contiguous “water-tight” shells and no internal anomalies within the 3D model. The Star Carr pendant STL file had a “water-tight” external shell and no extraneous shells but did have some unusual internal structural anomalies which tell a little about the method by which the model had been produced. It would be normal to remove these internal anomalies in the STL file for good 3D printing not least because it would then allow an effective re-hollowing of the part to reduce material usage. In a part this small, and using this material the quantities are trivial, the anomalies are non-critical and in this particular case they do not prevent the part printing, although similar anomalies in other circumstances often do and so the file was not modified before 3D printing.

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Left – The Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) of the model’s shell. Right – A close up of the TIN around the circular perforation at its upper apex. Surface tessellation edge lengths at their smallest are between about 0.05mm (50 μ) and 0.1mm (100 μ).

Viewing the STL file on-screen also allows you to zoom into the object and inspect the TIN as produced by the capture technique which in the case of the pendant has yielded tessellation edge lengths between 0.05mm (50 μ) and 0.1mm (100 μ) for the smallest features. This is at the higher resolution end of scan data used for 3D printing and are justifiable given the small size of the object and shallow depth of the surface features. For this object at this resolution the result is an STL file size of 30.4MB. Our colleague James  Meadwell here at De Montfort University supervised the printing of the STL file without modification on our 3D Systems Projet 3500 HD Max machine in Ultra High Definition (UHD) with a resolution of 750 x 750 x 890 DPI (xyz). The deposition layers have at best a 29μ thickness and the material was an acrylic polymer with a wax support structure. This is a professional, high-resolution 3D printer and a good quality material.

A 1:1 scale 3D print of the Star Carr pendant produced using a 3D Systems Projet 3500 HD Max at De Montfort University, in Ultra High Definition (UHD) with a resolution of 750 x 750 x 890 DPI (xyz). The deposition layers have a 29μ thickness. This level of layer thickness in 2016 is regarded as high fidelity 3D printing – even so note how the layer contours mask the fine surface detail on such a small (35mm wide) artefact at 1:1 scale.

A 1:1 scale 3D print of the Star Carr pendant produced using a 3D Systems Projet 3500 HD Max at De Montfort University, in Ultra High Definition (UHD) with a resolution of 750 x 750 x 890 DPI (xyz). The deposition layers have a 29μ thickness. This level of layer thickness in 2016 is regarded as high fidelity 3D printing – even so note how the layer contours mask the fine surface detail on such a small (35mm wide) artefact at 1:1 scale.


The results are interesting. It’s immediately obvious that at 1:1 scale, even using this high-resolution 3D printer, while the overall form of the artefact is reproduced well the surface detail is largely obscured by the fine layering of the 3D print material. This layering is virtually invisible to the naked eye when looking at the 3D print under normal light and is only visible when photographed with a macro lens. Clearly 3D printing such small objects for such shallow surface detail at 1:1 is less effective than it might be.

Left - the 5x 3D print and 1:1 scale 3D print compared. Right - the 5x 3D print created using a Z-Corp 650 printerin resin bonded gypsum.

Left – the 5x 3D print and 1:1 scale 3D print compared. Right – the 5x 3D print created using a Z-Corp 650 printer in resin bonded gypsum. Note that some of the larger incised marks on the surface of the object are now visible to the naked eye at a distance under angled directional lighting, but that the contour lines of the printing are also still visible.

In order to examine whether this limitation could be overcome we scaled the 3D print up to 5x its actual size and printed one side of it. This was carried out using a different machine (a Z-Corp 650 printer) and different material (resin bonded gypsum) in order to reduce the cost of the print. Cost is largely determined by the solid volume of the object, the pendant at 1:1 scale used 0.87cc’s of material, the scaled up version used 97.18cc’s. Here the layer thickness is between 0.089 (89 μ) and 0.102 mm (102 μ) about three times that of the previous model but the scaling is 5x so there is actually an effective theoretical diminution of layer thickness in relation to the object size, not an increase and so one would expect increased legibility of the surface detail. For the 5x 3D print of the pendant the results indicate that this is in fact the case but not in our view to sufficient extent in this instance to be convincing. The surface detail is a little more legible and even at this size (about 15cm across) can to a certain extent be distinguished by touch with the fingertips. The direction of improvement does however indicate that further increase in size and / or use of UHD printing at this 5x scale (with of course its attendant increase in costs) may yield convincing results. Here at De Montfort University we have the ability to produce physical copies in one piece up to much larger sizes (about 0.5m) in diameter but whether such a capability can find any use for the analysis or display of artefacts is not known at this stage.

This ability to easily change the scale of objects in digital 3D is one of a set of key advantages of the medium that can be applied to many objects to examine aspects of them. Were this approach to be developed further this is perhaps one way that 3D printing should be viewed by the research community, not only to try to reproduce high quality copies of precious archaeological artefacts –  perhaps questionable in some senses but useful in others – but as with so many analytical techniques and instruments as a “lens” to bring into focus particular aspects of the artefact which the technique may, with further development, be naturally suited to effectively examining, in this case surface detail, shape and form. We believe that 3D printing may be useful for:

  • Visual display where handling is not necessary – very convincing 3D printed reproductions can be produced of suitably sized copies which are colour matched and physically excellent shape copies. See
  • Experimental testing, for instance creating moulds and formers for casting or shaping in authentic materials like clay, bronze, precious metals, glass etc.
  • Creating scaled up copies of objects surfaces to illustrate or examine surface wear, or impact damage.
  • Testing physical forms where mass and material of the object are not key factors, for instance in fluid or air flow around or through static objects.

We hope this preliminary examination of the use of this STL file of an archaeological artefact may prompt further discussion on what roles, if any 3D printing may have for meaningful contribution to the study of heritage and material culture artefacts.


Posted in 3D Printing, Archaeology, Archaeology | 2 Comments

The Bosworth Experience – More Than Just a Battle

Bosworth Banner #0It’s refreshing after having been to two excellent battlefield centres in Scotland to visit another in Leicestershire which offers medieval architecture as well as armour. The Battle of Bosworth (22nd August 1485) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the English medieval Houses of Lancaster and York. Famously King Richard III (York) was killed at Bosworth by the Tudor forces (Lancaster) and after his victory their leader became King Henry VII, founder of an English royal dynasty. In 2010 the Battle of Bosworth Visitor Centre underwent a £400K makeover by Studio MB ( ) to better communicate the background to this battle which changed British history and the sequence of events which took place on the ground. The visitor centre itself sits atop a pleasant hill in the Bosworth landscape looking over the battleground and is a collection of pre-existing farm and mill buildings which have been adapted to their new use with additional new buildings added to them. As such they hang together well as an integrated and interestingly detailed group of brick buildings loosely arranged around an open courtyard. One enters the grouping though a covered gateway in the “Tithe Barn”, a structure with a real medieval timber frame but a 20th century building envelope which now houses the café. The ticket office is secreted away at the far side of the courtyard and acts as the entrance to a series of interlinked exhibition rooms arranged in chronological sequence of events beginning with an interesting if abbreviated rehearsal of late medieval society and every-day life. Here we have scale models of two types of dwelling, a farmer’s cottage and a knight’s house and a collection of reproduction domestic artefacts that attempt to give an idea of the life of ordinary people – the people who would make up the majority of those in the battle. Bosworth Banner #2

There is characterisation to provide a narrative sequence using four individuals, Alice a local child, Colette the wife of a mercenary in the employ for Henry Tudor, John a farmer and long-bowman in Richard III’s army and finally Lord Stanley, the rather ambiguous Chamberlain of Richard III but also step father of Henry Tudor. As one walks through each room push button video screens allow these characters to give short descriptions of their experience and their role in the events being presented. You start to identify with the characters, as you are supposed to do such that in the “battle room” you know because he’s not there before they tell you that John the long-bowman didn’t survive, but was killed as he fled with the defeated Yorkist troops. These are not CGI animations, they are real actors and are convincing and engaging, there is tangible real humanity to them and empathy with them. Bosworth Banner #3

The main protagonists are throughout posed in opposition to one another, in the historical preambles and in the sepulchrally darkened “battle room” at the centre of which is a very simple backlit round table animating very basic diagrammatic animations of the troop movements of the battle but accompanied by an informative well produced audio narration which is coordinated with the audio-visual displays in the room. This is a self-directed exploration of the content, you do not need a guide, with the darkened “battle room”, you can see where to go, an entrance and exit. However one’s left questioning the central method of the darkened “theatre” for the main narrative performance, it’s justification is the visual impact of the son-et-lumiere but I felt slightly frustrated that I couldn’t see the armour of the two figures at either end properly (localised spot-lights kept going off at the wrong time) and only stumbled across the really interesting try-your-strength long-bow by accident. Bosworth Banner #4

What was surprisingly successful was the stick-your-head-in-a-helmet (fixed to the wall) and see how little you can see through a slit visor when you’re fighting – I ended up getting skewered with a halberd – just seen – not felt! After this the aftermath of the battle is displayed, with replica tomb effigies, descriptions of the treatment of the dead, including King Richard III, some of the knights and ordinary folk. The treatment of the wounded living is quite informative, for instance I had no idea that honey and turpentine was used as an anti-bacterial agent on wounds. Bosworth Banner #7

Following the “post battle exposé” we enter the present and there’s a room with opportunities to learn about how modern methods of metal detecting, archaeology and forensics were used to find the correct location for the battlefield and analyse what occurred on it. The ballistics of early artillery are given an airing, and there is a simple game-play element for those so inclined. And that pretty much does it for the battle itself but there is considerably more about the Tudor dynasty and society which follows on. Bosworth Banner #6

The final rooms of the exhibition focus on the Tudor kings and queens who succeeded Henry VII and the significant events, politics and society of the period. Its here that we find genuinely interesting content on Tudor architecture, with real parts of buildings like encaustic tiles, parts of a rood screen, explanatory material on prodigy houses and domestic equipment. There is also some information on the Reformation – the Henrician and Edwardine excesses of religious destruction in the 16th century. Bosworth Banner #5

This is a battle visitor centre so one cannot expect extensive special interest material on related subjects but one cannot help thinking that in the English midlands where arguably some of the finest and most innovate examples Tudor architecture exist, there should be a museum and or interpretive facility which focusses on the built legacy of this period of British History. Exiting through the centre’s shop you emerge back into the pleasant courtyard and the opportunity to view the battlefield itself. It has to be said that this is one of the most attractive battlefield landscapes, the hilltop location gives marvellous views over the rolling Leicestershire countryside. On a sunny day the short walk to the interpretation viewpoint is pleasant and easy to spot because of the two large flag-poles flying the pennants of Richard and Henry. Bosworth Banner #8

Having enjoyed the landscape and seen where it all happened – though it’s a bit unclear from the presentation method what did actually happen where – mthe café beckons. This is in the “Tythe Barn” close to the entrance and is large enough not to feel crowded even when there is a bus party. The timber frame of the building is original but the rest is recent and non-the-worse for it. This a working set of buildings which have been well considered and overall appear to function reasonably well as a visitor centre. Run by Leicestershire County Council ( ) the rural setting makes this visitor attraction well worth it simply for an afternoon out in the countryside. Bosworth Banner #9

Posted in Battlefields, Medieval, Museum Installations, Museum Installations, Richard III & Medieval Leicester, Tudor | 1 Comment

VR Immersion in the Battle of Bannockburn

Bannockburn Banner #7This is the second of two articles on Battlefield Heritage Centres. The Battle of Bannockburn (23-24 June 1314) was a significant Scottish victory by Robert the Bruce and his army against a much larger English force led by King Edward II in the First War of Scottish Independence and was a landmark in Scottish history. The Battle of Bannockburn Visitor Centre just outside Stirling and operated by the National Trust for Scotland was opened for the 700th anniversary of the battle on the 1 March 2014 in a new building equipped with an impressive suite of Virtual Reality exhibits. Located at the heart of a wide area of landscape which saw events unfold over the two days in 1314, the building which was designed by Reiach and Hall ( ) is a low-key contrast in black brick to the largely white rough cast domestic buildings which are close by in the suburbs of the village. It stands out from these and rests just below the crest of a small hill which played an important part in the battle. The hill is now crowned with a viewing platform, flag-pole and a monument to Robert the Bruce.

Bannockburn Banner #1Designed around a courtyard the plan of the building leads the visitor from the entrance in a pre-programmed ant-clockwise circuit around it, for much of the time in darkness. This is another “black-box” visitor centre, necessarily so because of the nature of the exhibits which are all Virtual Reality. The experience is highly structured and organised, you have to book in advance, and select whether you want to be a “player” or an “observer.” These pre-programmed groups are issued with 3D specs and conducted around the VR galleries by a guide, in our case the excellent and appropriately costumed Ned. This is very much an experience for families and children, but even staid academics find themselves being caught up in the excitement of the narrative and game play. And this is what this experience is all about – it’s a dynamic, engaging, participative involvement in learning about a series of historical events by becoming part of the action.Bannockburn Banner #6

Immediately on arrival and presenting my pre-printed ticket I was invited to engage in “weapons handling” while I waited for my pre-booked and guided visit to start. This unstuffy and no-nonsense invitation was a great way break the ice and simply get involved. Real hands-on handling of swords, real armour and helmets convince the visitor that this experience is going to be something different and immediate. Bannockburn Banner #2a

The main event begins when we are taken through, as a group to the battlefield experience, a large, entirely black room with 3D projection on all the walls and in cloistered sections behind for further interactive CGI with animated characters. The guide gives careful instructions as to where to stand, what is being seen, what is available to be seen and how to interact with exhibits. I have to say that without this human guidance it would have been impossible to understand what to do or what was being seen, but as it was Ned the guide made an excellent job of narrating us through what turned out to be a highly interesting if somewhat sanitized presentation of the battle as it developed from the viewpoint of an observer within it. The 3D was generally OK, best for things like flying arrows and cross-bow bolts which very realistically appeared to whizz by, or indeed through us but less convincing for some of the human characters which although having been created using motion capture at times appeared cartoonish. This is not Braveheart, there is no blood spray, spattered mud and mutilations here, it’s more boys own but in many regards no less entertaining or informative for it. Bannockburn Banner #3

Around the perimeter of the room behind cloistered screens are a series of about ten, one-to-one interactive characters presented on the wall. You stand on metal plates in front of them and use a simple hand gesture to interact and prompt the character to speak to you, each has about five possible short scripts which you can select and which are informative, sometimes humorous and give a real sense of the diversity of people involved and their views. This character interaction is a genuinely interesting and effective part of the exhibition, I found myself progressing from one character to another and gaining useful insights about the motivations, prejudices and pre-occupations of these characters, all of whom are based on fact. Bannockburn Banner #4

For the second part of the “show” we were expertly shepherded into a battle “game-play” room another completely dark space but this time circular with a central console and projection mapping table. About a dozen “players” from the visitor group were allocated numbered positions around the table which had the physical topography of a few square miles of the battlefield on it. Ned our guide occupied a position at a control console and the rest of us occupied the circular upper level gallery to watch. Projection mapping was used to control and show graphic representations of the movement of forces over the battlefield on the circular table in the centre of the room. Each active participant was responsible for making decisions about the deployment and engagement of regiments, and had been allocated either to a Scottish or an English one. Most of the “generals” in command appeared to be under 12 years of age and there were a couple of Dads assisting. Like all good games this was very much a social event, not cerebral, but emotive and impulsive, both because of the natural inclinations of the players and the infectious enthusiasm of Ned the guide. I think it resulted in a popular Scottish victory but could have gone either way. Underlying this great experience is the technology, a computer game programme calculates and projects attrition based on a series of variables to do with the forces in play, their pre-programmed capabilities, and the geography and so on. Interestingly at the end of the process, there was a light diagnostic analysis of how the game had played out, losses, gains, duration and so on along with a comparison with what happened in the actual battle. This made the “game-play” more than just entertainment but a valuable learning experience conducted in way which communicated the visceral time-dependent urgency of decision-making in life and death situations. Bannockburn Banner #5

We emerged from the game play into reality and the small café for refreshment and the inevitable retail opportunity near the entrance. It felt like having been to the cinema but with a personal guide or compere. Overall this is definitely an “experience”, it is certainly entertainment, and it’s ideal for a family afternoon or morning out and it achieves all of these aims very well. It’s not a museum and is not intended to be one, it has no real artefacts but outside it does have the modern landscape of the battlefield which a 2 minute walk to the observation point lays out before you. There is a disconnect between the immersive VR experienced in the centre and the reality of standing on a wind-blown hill-top looking at a real landscape. There is no attempt at augmented reality which is perhaps a little surprising but rather immersion was the technical path chosen by the design team. The development was a partnership between the National Trust for Scotland and Historic Scotland, funded by the Scottish Government (£5.0M approx) and the Heritage Lottery Fund (£3.94M grant), and The Concept and Design of the new interpretation was by Bright White Ltd (  ) with 3D Research, Development and Realisation by CDDV, Centre for Digital Documentation and Visualisation (CDDV) , a partnership between The Glasgow School of Art’s Digital Design Studio (DDS) and Historic Scotland. Bannockburn Banner #2

Posted in Battlefields, Medieval, Museum Installations, Museum Installations, Projection Mapping, Scotland | Comments Off on VR Immersion in the Battle of Bannockburn